What we really know about photons is virtually be inference and deduction as we only observe photons with a material interface. We know the speed of light and have tested it so there is little doubt that is true however we have never caused photons to interact with each other not even with a laser. Photons are predictable and we can size and shape them with frequency and wavelength analogies but again both of those attributes of photons are derived from observing them interacting with mater at a material interface. We also know there is no evidence of interference of photons with out both the double slit experiment screen and with the background material interface used to detect the so called interference which puts that interference directly at the point where the photons hit the screen upon which they are observed or detected. That means they stimulate mater to that effect or interfere with mater to give the interference effect.
What we next have to assume is that photons only impart properties of wave and frequency on matter interacted with and because they don't interact in any other known way it can be assumed that they actually carry no energy with them as they travel as vectors at the speed of light though empty space or at some other speed in some other medium in which they don't interact. The study I did that shows that light imparts a gravitational mass and don't have mass because of my radiometer proof found in my old version of new laws of physics/gravity is hot dissertation shows that they really lack momentum because they lack mass. If photon light had mass and was reflected ay a mirror the physics we observe simply would not work. Photons definitely have no mass. And carry energy but they do carry a sympathetic code based on angular momentum at the subatomic particle level they can transmit and this code enables energy that is dormant to be derived from mater that it can interact with as not all types of photons interact with all types of mater.
If you assume all of my assumptions above are true than you reach the same exact conclusion I do . that light / photons only transmit information that is based on angular momentum of atoms or atomic particles under conditions from which they came or were generated/ reflected etc. Where then does this dark energy come from if not traveling with the photon though space? It necessarily comes from the atoms and sub atomic particles photons can or will interact with when they do. It is sort of like nuclear energy potential that is already present where they do interact because they are sympathetic with the type of mater that can react as seen on the spectrum and the various types of detectors made of different materials and configurations required beyond our eyes for the visible portion of the spectrum.
That leads to the inevitable conclusion that photons are purely nothing but a code being sent. much in the way we use radio waves to broadcast television and radio programing but not like we use electricity in a wire to send a phone conversation or Morris code. We happen to have figured out how to send coded broadcasts of photons not realizing that that is exactly what nature is doing across the entire electro magnetic spectrum. Why would nature send code to the earth to us humans from 14 or more billion light years away? Actually it does not intend to send the code this far. That is just wasted code because the code actually works in solid , liquid and gas state mater such that photons are existing there but not as the photons we observe traveling across space but rather as dark photons that transmit binding energy from one part of a mass to another. We generate photons by exposing the dark photons that played a role in solid structures as binding energy as binding energy that radiates attempting to find communicate internally but having lost it's link to the mass. masses become gravitational or at least just singular objects simply because of the internal coded communications of dark photons within. It is not until bonds are broken in something like an incandescent light bulb that we have found a way to generate light on demand. We interrupt the coded conversations as it were with in the mass and release them to space. This theory enables Newtonian gravity theory to trump relativity and the part of relativity claiming that light has mass just is not empirical. Once you rethink the physics this actually makes more sense and fairly easy to prove. If photons had momentum the radiometers would not work the way they do. The force of light experiments are also misunderstood. The thin foil will seem to move away from a reflecting light source not because of momentum but because the photons transfer the angular momentum code to the exposed surface causing electrons to move off the surface toward the source of the light and this enables the added negative charge of the extra electrons to repel status electrons at the surface of the foil moving it forward. It works similar to the way thrust does propelling the foil forward not by having the photon itself strike and move the foil. again the radiometer proof solves that problem you can find it's description in lex loeb new laws of physics and lex loeb gravity is hot pages.
As for transmitting code across the universe photons are doing that. we can read the mass spectrometer data now and figure out conditions from which photons were originally generated. so it is a sort of communication just not the same effective communication as in close proximity where photons are electro magnetic binding energy in mater.